Author Topic: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms  (Read 13148 times)

Randi

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Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« on: December 21, 2012, 06:20:03 pm »
If you look up any terms specific to sails or wind powered sailing, please put [links to] any useful or interesting information here.

Also, feel free to add helpful links.

If anyone wants to organize this, feel free ;D





References:





Some overlap with the OWpedia will be unavoidable, but I will try to keep that a little more general for now. Maybe I will try to merge them an some future time.
« Last Edit: January 03, 2015, 08:28:23 am by Randi »

Randi

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Re: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« Reply #1 on: December 23, 2012, 05:01:41 pm »
Parts of a sail: head, foot, luff, leech, tack, clew, peak, throat

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sail-plan and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Full_rigged_ship:

Studding (also called steering) and Ringtail sails

The young sea officer's sheet anchor; ... - Sails - 1853 - includes sprit sail

The Square Rigging



Gaff topsail - a triangular fore-and-aft sail with its foot along the gaff and its luff on the topmast - http://www.thefreedictionary.com/gaff+Topsail and http://books.google.fr/books?id=QgMRudqoLGQC&pg=PR25&lpg=PR25&dq=gaff+topsail&source=bl&ots=9SBCTPAQ8e&sig=DAVeOJGxJqk01XU_ElMsMtS_oUo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=hWrZUK-tLOPM0QW3ioHwBw&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAThG#v=onepage&q=gaff%20topsail&f=false

Dolphin striker - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolphin_striker

SPENCER. The fore-and-main trysails; fore-and-aft sails set with gaffs, introduced instead of main-topmast and mizen staysails.
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/26000/26000-h/26000-h.htm
AND
Spencer a boomless gaff sail on a square-rigged ship?s foremast or mainmast (replaced in the mid 19th century by staysails).
http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/american_english/spencer--2
AND
Spencer A fore-and-aft sail, abaft the foremast or the mainmast, hoisted upon a small supplementary mast and set with a gaff and no boom; a trysail carried at the foremast or mainmast; - named after its inventor, Knight Spencer, of England [1802].
Spencer mast a small mast just abaft the foremast or mainmast, for hoisting the spencer.
http://www.webster-dictionary.net/definition/spencer (1913)

TRYSAIL. A reduced sail used by small craft in lieu of their main-sail during a storm. Also, a fore-and-aft sail, set with a boom and gaff, in ships, synonymous with the spencers of brigs and schooners, and the spanker or driver of ships. (See Storm-trysail.)
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/26000/26000-h/26000-h.htm
AND
TRYSAIL-MAST. A spar abaft the fore and main mast, for hoisting the trysailA trysail (also known as a "spencer") is small triangular or square fore-and-aft rigged sail hoisted in place of a larger sail when winds are very high.
The trysail provides enough thrust to maintain control of the ship (...). It is hoisted abaft (i.e., directly behind) the mainmast (taking the place of the much larger mainsail) or, on a brig, abaft the foremast.
AND
In the Royal Navy in the late nineteenth century, the term "trysail" came to denote the main fore-and-aft sail on any mast. ... Naval trysails were usually gaff-rigged and "loose-footed", with a spar along the head but no boom, ...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trysail


« Last Edit: March 18, 2016, 06:21:49 pm by Randi »

Janet Jaguar

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Re: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« Reply #2 on: December 23, 2012, 06:21:00 pm »
From the Dictionary by A.Ansted in Helpful Links.  (the things I never learned from the RN logs :) )  My question-marked "filling" and "weather" guesses are probably correct.

Quote
Clew. The clew is the lower corner of a sail, and unless otherwise described is the after lower corner; but the tack, or forward corresponding corner, is sometimes called the weather clew. This will apply equally to square or fore-and-aft sails; but in square sails each lower corner is a clew, and each becomes the tack (or weather clew) alternately, as the ship comes about.  This, however, cannot be the case in fore-and-aft rig, since the forward part of such sails always remains in situ; and therefore in yachts and such like craft the clew will always be the after lower corner of the sail, and though the tack may often be spoken of as the "weather clew" it still always remains the tack, i.e., the forward lower corner.
To clew up is to gather up a sail by its clew-lines.

Fill.  To fill the sails is so to trim them that the wind may act upon them.

Weather helm and lee helm. A vessel is said to carry weather helm when her tendency in sailing is to run up into the wind, and therefore her helm must be kept constantly over to the weather side, or up. She carries lee helm when she tends to fall away from the wind, and so her helm must be kept to leeward, or down. Though some vessels have one tendency and some another, there mayalso be causes to aggravate these. For instance, if a vessel have too much weight forward, or if the af ter sails are too much for the head sails, she will have to be sailed with weather helm, for her tendency will be to run up into the wind; while if she has too much weight in her stern), or if the head sails more than counterbalance the after ones, they will carry her head away from the wind, and she will constantly require a lee-helm to keep her up. This is very well understood with respect to large vessels, and taken into due account in the stowing of cargo. For a sailing ship will be very narrowly watched throughout her first voyage, and if it be found that she carries too much weather helm, the greater weight of cargo will, for her next trip, be stowed aft; whereas if she requires a lee helm it will find its way forward. Sea-faring men approve of weather helm; they like to feel that their vessel is ardent, to ensure that she will come up into the wind when required to. Lee helm is not only objectionable, but in certain cases it becomes positively dangerous; for if, in a sudden squall, a boat cannot quickly be brought up head to wind, the consequences may be serious.   


Dean

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Re: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« Reply #3 on: December 23, 2012, 06:59:29 pm »
The 'rake' of the mast fore and aft will also affect the weather/lee helm.

On my 27' (8.3m) Bristol sloop I intentionally rake the top of the mast 'just a hair' aft. This makes sure the boat has a weather helm which allows me to 'pull' the tiller when sailing which is much more comfortable than 'pushing' on it all the time. It also ensures that the boat will come up into the wind as you suggest AND  if something should happen to the helmsperson(ME!) the boat will, by itself, head up into the wind, stall,  and the sails will luff (flap) until the boat is brought back under control. :D

Randi

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Re: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« Reply #4 on: December 23, 2012, 11:48:15 pm »
Brail - To furl or truss a sail by pulling it in towards the mast, or the ropes used to do so. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_nautical_terms#B
Brails, in a sailing ship, are small lines passing through blocks, and used to haul in or up the leeches, bottoms, or corners of sails, before furling. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brail

Furl - To roll or gather a sail against its mast or spar. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_nautical_terms#F
Furling refers to stowing or dousing a boat's sail by flaking (folding), packing (like stuffing a spinnaker into a turtle), roller furling or just lowering it onto the deck. Nowadays, it is becoming more common to use the term "furling" to refer to reefing a sail that is part of a roller furling system. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furl_%28sailing%29

Reefing: To temporarily reduce the area of a sail exposed to the wind, usually to guard against adverse effects of strong wind or to slow the vessel. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_nautical_terms#R AND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reefing
To remove a reef - "turned the reefs out of the topsail" AND "Shake a reef out of a topsail"



Haul up - This is a tricky one because it can increase or decrease the sail area depending on the type of sail.

Reducing sail area:
In http://www.woronorafire.org.au/maritime/Glossary.html#H I find the following relating to 'haul up':
To brail up
    To haul up a sail by means of the brads (I think this last word is supposed to be brails).
To clew up
    To haul up the clews of a sail to its yard by means of the clew-lines
Trice, trice up
    To haul up and fasten.
Quote from: dmaschen
On the 'Square Riggers' which I think cover most of the Phase 3 boats the sails would be hauled up to LESSEN sail area as the sails are hung from the yards and lowered to make them work.

Increasing sail area:
In http://www.safetyharborboatclub.com/sailtipstheory/nauticalterms_e-k.html:
haul up - To hoist a sail.
Quote from: dmaschen
Yes on my type of boat with what is called a 'Marconi Rig' you would haul UP the sails to increase the area. The main sail stores on the boom (the big, horizontal thing) and the jib (the front sail) stores rolled up around the forestay. When I get ready to sail I pull a halyard to raise the main and unroll the jib to make it catch wind. If it gets too windy I can 'reef' the main by letting it down the mast a bit and rolling up the 'extra' on the boom.

(Thanks Dean!)
« Last Edit: June 26, 2013, 06:54:06 pm by Randi »

Dean

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Re: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« Reply #5 on: December 24, 2012, 01:17:47 pm »
For those interested in 'everything Nautical' I'll offer the 'Bible of Boating' - CHAPMAN PILOTING Seamanship and Small Boat Handling - Hearst Books - ISBN 0-688-07246-1

It coversTerms, Laws and Regs, Equipment, Navigation Rules, Seamanship,................

It's everything you ever want or need to know. It's updated regularly but for our general needs any edition available should be fine! :)

Janet Jaguar

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Re: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« Reply #6 on: December 24, 2012, 01:36:11 pm »
For those interested in 'everything Nautical' I'll offer the 'Bible of Boating' - CHAPMAN PILOTING Seamanship and Small Boat Handling - Hearst Books - ISBN 0-688-07246-1

It coversTerms, Laws and Regs, Equipment, Navigation Rules, Seamanship,................

It's everything you ever want or need to know. It's updated regularly but for our general needs any edition available should be fine! :)

Found it, ebook free in Google Books, 1917 edition:
http://books.google.com/books?id=s_cWAAAAYAAJ&pg=PP1&dq=CHAPMAN+PILOTING+Seamanship+and+Small+Boat+Handling

Thanks, Dean.  I nice edition addition to our Library! :)
« Last Edit: December 24, 2012, 09:05:56 pm by Janet Jaguar »

Dean

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Re: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« Reply #7 on: December 24, 2012, 06:07:30 pm »
'Edition--addition' a mondegreen for our Forum ;)

I have later editions if anybody should need a 'look up'. ;D

Janet Jaguar

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Re: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« Reply #8 on: December 24, 2012, 09:05:15 pm »
Oooops!   :-[

Dean

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Re: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« Reply #9 on: December 25, 2012, 12:14:42 am »
Oooops!   :-[

Must have been the egg nog!! ::)

Janet Jaguar

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Re: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« Reply #10 on: December 25, 2012, 03:41:58 am »
 ;D

« Last Edit: December 25, 2012, 04:16:51 am by Janet Jaguar »

Randi

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Re: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« Reply #11 on: January 14, 2013, 07:39:23 am »
fill away, Nautical .
a. to fall off the wind and proceed on a board.
b. to brace the yards, so that sails that have been aback will stand full.

fill and stand on, Nautical . (of a sailing vessel) to proceed on a tack after being hove to or halted facing the wind; fill away.

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/filled+away

Janet Jaguar

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Re: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« Reply #12 on: March 08, 2013, 10:32:20 am »
Glossary of nautical terms
Point up
To change the direction of a sailboat so that it is more up wind. To bring the bow windward. Also called heading up. This is the opposite of falling off.



A Croatian Glossary for modern sailing terms - translates clearly.
Definitions, terminology and shipboard phrases relevant to the topic of ship handling and this text
« Last Edit: March 08, 2013, 05:37:18 pm by Janet Jaguar »

Dean

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Re: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« Reply #13 on: March 09, 2013, 01:56:09 pm »
Glossary of nautical terms
Point up
To change the direction of a sailboat so that it is more up wind. To bring the bow windward. Also called heading up. This is the opposite of falling off.

There is a 'limit' top how far you can 'point up' especially in a 'Square Rigger.' To 'high' and they go into 'Irons' and stall out. Very hard to get swung around, pointed down wind, and back to manoeuvring.  My boat will struggle to point to about 20? toward the wind direction and then start to stall out.

Randi

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Re: Sail and Wind Powered Sailing Terms
« Reply #14 on: April 14, 2013, 08:06:37 pm »
Brace
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Braces_%28sailing%29

Sheet
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheet_%28sailing%29

Tack
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tack_%28square_sail%29
AND
3.   (Naut.) A rope used to hold in place the foremost lower corners of the courses when the vessel is closehauled (see Illust. of Ship); also, a rope employed to pull the lower corner of a studding sail to the boom. - http://www.webster-dictionary.net/definition/tack



Lead
6.   (Naut.) The course of a rope from end to end. - http://www.webster-dictionary.net/definition/lead



Buntline
(Transport / Nautical Terms) Nautical one of several lines fastened to the foot of a square sail for hauling it up to the yard when furling - http://www.thefreedictionary.com/buntline
« Last Edit: April 16, 2013, 08:06:19 pm by Randi »